Project Delivery Methods


The project is delivered through 3 major planks.


  • Project Management Arrangements
  • Private Sector
  • Community Engagement





The project has a robust governance structure created to ensure smooth implementation.





Steering Committee

This is the highest decision making body for the project. Chaired by CS (Energy) and Chair of Energy Committee (Council of Governors), PS (Energy), PS (Health), PS (Education), PS (Interior), PS (Devolution), PS (Water), PS (National Treasury), DG (ERC), MD (KPLC), MD (REA). Attended by the co-chairs of the Technical Working Group.

The team meets twice per year to review progress, provide policy guidance and resolve any high-level challenges facing the project.



Technical Working Group (TWG)

Ms. Kulamu Bullo, Co-Chair, TWG and CEC Member, Energy, Marsabit County at the 4th TWG KOSAP Meeting


This is critical decision making organ of the project. The TWG is chaired by Secretary, Renewable Energy, Ministry of Energy and a county government nominee. It includes representatives from the 14 beneficiary counties, KPLC, REA, CoG, FCDC, ERC, Ministries of Health, Education, Interior, Devolution, & Water.  It is also attended by County Renewable Energy Officers and other PCU Member. The TWG meets quarterly and is expected to resolve   the common challenges arising during implementation.



County Working Group

The County Working Group is the organ mandated to resolve challenges of project implementation at the County level. The Governor in each of the 14 counties acts as the patron of the group. The CWG is expected to keep the Governor of the county updated on the progress of the project. It is chaired by the CECs in charge of Energy and co-chaired by the County Commissioners on behalf of the National Government. The County Renewable Energy Officers (CREOs) act as the Secretary of the group. Other members include County Director Enforcement, County Director of Education, County Director Water, County Director Environment, County Business Manager KPLC and County Supervisor REA.

Ms Ebla Hassan, CEC Energy Wajir County and Mr Loyford Kibaara, County Commissioner Wajir addressing members of the KOSAP County Working Group in a past meeting held in November, 2018.



Project Coordination Unit (PCU)

The KOSAP PCU is hosted in the Ministry of Energy and is headed by the Project Coordinator. It consists of various technical officers drawn from the Ministry and specialists in the areas of Procurement, Financial Management, Monitoring and Evaluation, Social Safeguards, Communications, Cook Stoves, and Solar. 14 County Renewable Officers (CREOs) who are based at the county are also part of the PCU.


The PCU is responsible for not only implementing Components 2 and 4 of the proposed project but also the overall coordination of project implementation and oversight, including the following:

  • Defining, jointly with the respective county governments, the project areas based on technical and policy development priorities;
  • Resolving, in consultation with the county governments, challenges requiring high-level intervention facing the project;
  • Monitoring the implementation of the project; and
  • Consolidating information from Impact Assessments (IAs) on progress of implementation and results reporting.



KPLC and REA have established respective Project Implementation Units PIUs to manage their specific components. The PCU and PIUs consult and collaborate on a day-to -day basis and also hold monthly meetings.






Kenya has a highly developed private sector providing solar home solutions (SHS).However; private solar companies are largely confined to the core market, in densely populated areas and have a negligible footprint in the underserved counties.


The Project recognises that the underserved areas are not a top priority  for solar companies  given the uncertainty on the geographic and socioeconomic profile of consumers as well as high cost (about four times higher than core market) to reach such areas.


KOSAP will therefore provide incentives to the private sector to create a level playing field between the core market and underserved counties.


The project has created a Results Based and Debt Financing Facilities of about t KSh 4.7 Billion (U$47 Million).


  1. Results Based Facility


The Results Based Facility will provide incentives worth Ksh 1.20 Billion to be extended to Solar Services Providers (SSPs) over a period of 5 years. This is intended   to compensate them for the initial, ongoing incremental, and opportunity costs associated with an expansion of operations in underserved counties.  The service providers are expected to provide both portable and installed solar home systems consisting of at least two fixed lights; one portable light, radio operations and phone charging capabilities.


  1. Debt Facility

A further Ksh 3 Billion will be availed as short-term debt to the SSPs to finance costs associated with hardware manufacture and transit to Kenya, until a sale is made. This model is expected to enable the service providers to adopt favourable payment methods that will allow households to pay off the costs of the solar products over a reasonable period of time.



  • Clean Cooking Stoves Incentives

The Facility will also encourage the uptake of clean cooking stoves to mitigate against the environmental degradation and other health concerns that arise from the use of low-efficiency stoves.  This will be initially targeted to beneficiaries in the counties of West Pokot, Turkana, Isiolo, Samburu, and Marsabit.


Under this, the Facility will provide the selected distributors with financial support via a package of incentives worth Ksh 500 Million to enable them to market their stoves locally, to increase their inventories of the selected higher-quality stoves, to purchase and transport them to the target communities in number, and to sell them in the communities.








The project has employed a robust citizen engagement mechanism that ensures that public participation is at the centre of implementation.


At the design stage there were wide consultations not only with various government agencies, development partners, and the private sector   but also with beneficiaries.


Thus from the onset the intended beneficiaries were brought on board.

In particular citizen engagement will be achieved through the following mechanisms:


  1. Environmental and Social Safeguards
  2. Consumer Awareness


Environmental and Social Safeguards  

Safeguards are designed to prevent unintended adverse affects of the project on third parties and the environment. Any project should endeavour to benefit community and in the very least “leave them as you found them” and in essence make an effort to do no harm.


A comprehensive environmental and social safeguards evaluation was undertaken by the World Bank during the design stage of the project. Under the evaluation, KOSAP is categorised as medium, with possible effects ranging from medium to moderate. The effects have been identified as site specific, predictable and readily manageable impacts.


The Project has triggered the following Environmental Policies.

  1. Operational policy on Environmental Assessments (OP/BP 4.01)

The main potential environmental impacts anticipated for the project are

  1. civil works that would be limited to construction of the mini-grids in remote areas
  2. installation of stand-alone systems for households
  • installation of solar PV for water pumping and
  1. construction of distribution lines to connect new customers and
  2. environmental, health, and safety concerns are likely to be associated with recycling and disposal of spent batteries at the end of their useful lives, which is usually 3–5 years after deployment
  3. Operational Policy on Natural Habitats (OP/BP 4.04)


This was triggered because project activities are likely to affect the natural habitats through the erection of poles, construction of the mini-grids, and the installation of solar pumping equipment.

  1. Indigenous Peoples  Policy (OP/BP 4.10)
  • Known presence of indigenous people/ vulnerable and marginalized groups (VMGs) in the 14 Counties. The first category  reprsensted  by eight  of the project  counties- Garissa, Mandera, Isiolo , Marsabit, Wajir, Turkana, Samburu and Narok Counties are  overwhelming IP/VMG counties in as far  they are inhabited mainly  by nomadic  pastoralists communities.   Tana  River, Lamu, Kilifi, Kwale, Taita Taveta and West Pokot  counties  have minority IPS/VMG living among the more dominate  communities in each of the counties.


Social Assessment 

 Given that there will be some elements of payment to access the project benefits; some of the following concerns were flagged.

  1. a) Affordability of the solar or mini-grids due to high levels of poverty in the areas.
  2. b) Elite capture with potential to influence the actual sites of subprojects away from VMGs for individual interest gain;
  3. c) Gender considerations in the subprojects among the VMGs; and
  4. d) Potential conflict over conflict over communal land and natural resources on the locations of mini-grids.




Safeguard Instruments triggered in relation to this project include:


  • Operational Policy on Involuntary  Resettlement (Op/BP 4/12)

Project does not visage major physical or economic displacements of people. Project may however acquire land for the construction and installation of mini-grids that may result in either displacement of people or have impacts on tress or grazing /farming land.

NB: link to the Resources Section where other all environmental and safeguards are uploaded.


Grievances Redress Mechanism

A detailed Grievance Redress Mechanism (GRM) has been developed as part of the project implementation. The mechanism will be used to deal with any complaints regarding land and labour and will be dealt with at the Sub County, County and at the Ministry level.



Click here to find for the GRM Process





Consumer engagement is vital to the success of the project. The project will support a multiyear program for consumer education and citizen engagement in the target areas (households, public facilities, and water facilities in the underserved counties). Consumers in the area are unlikely to be aware of the new technologies being presented and will benefit from information about the services, explanation about how the services can be accessed, and the opportunity to interact with service providers to share their feedback and concerns.


The citizen engagement and consumer awareness activities will provide beneficiaries with the necessary guidance on how to get the best out of the products in the way they use and maintain them. These activities will also help service providers better understand the needs and concerns of their customers. The citizen engagement program will employ a variety of messaging tools and personal interaction to reach various audiences while ensuring opportunities for two-way dialogue.


The process of developing the Consumer Awareness and Citizen Engagement   will involve extensive consultations with County Governments, Opinion leaders including  Religious Leaders and Members of County Assemblies as well as potential beneficiaries at household, public facilities and  water facilities.