As the target counties are not served by the national grid, mini-grids will be constructed to be the main source of energy. A total of 120 mini-grids will be constructed throughout the I4 Counties. The mini-grids will then be used to provide electricity to community facilities, enterprises and households.

Mini-grids are mostly suited for rural towns/larger villages that (a) are relatively remote and therefore unlikely to be served by the national grid, (b) are relatively densely populated, and (c) have expected loads that justify the mini-grid investments as opposed to deploying individual household systems. This usually requires a certain size (for example, 100 households plus) and sufficient existing or potential business and institutional loads.

 Mini Grids in Garissa County constructed by the national government.  KOSAP will construct 120 Mini grids in the 14 Counties. (Picture; Nyaga Ireri MOE)

The sites for   the construction involved lengthy consultations with the County Governments in the 14 Regions. Counties were requested to provide possible sites for the construction of the min grid based on the following criteria.

  • Ability to serve 100-700 prospective users
  • Ability to attract demand of 20-300 kilowatt(KW)

The final sites will be identified after feasibility study is undertaken by the project.

Depending on the number of users to be supplied and the service level for each type of use, the mini-grid will combine solar PV, battery storage and thermal units running on diesel.

Baragoi in Samburu County one of the towns that will be served by a minigrid(Picture: Samburu County Governmnet)

Kenya Power and Lighting Company (KPLC) is responsible for implementing this section and the mini-grids will be developed   under a public-private partnership (PPP). Under this arrangement a Private Service Provider (PSP) will be responsible for construction and partial financing of the generation systems and distribution network for each mini-grid.

The PSP will sign two long-term contracts with KPLC. 7-10 years PPA for the operation and maintenance (O&M) and for recovery of the privately finance part of the investment. A 7-10 years service contract for O&M of the distribution network will be signed with the successful contractor.  After the recovery of the private investments, all assets (generation and operation) will be in GOK ownership.

Customers supplied through min-grids will be KPLC customers and will pay the same tariff for each category charged.

1.Solar Systems for  Households and Community Facilities

The vast majority of off-grid households in the 14 underserved counties is dispersed and requires individual system solutions (Solar Home Systems- SHS).

The project will leverage on the thriving SHS industry and provide incentives to companies currently operating in the more densely populated areas of Kenya, to expand to underserved counties.  These services provided through portable SHS, are well suited to some of the population in the underserved counties as the households do not always live in permanent structures.

Affordability for the SHS is ensured by allowing the households to pay for the systems over time. Preliminary  World Bank Multi- tier Framework (MTF) surveys shows over half a  million households  can afford a  Tier I Level; l SHS.

Tier 1

  • Basic offering: Solar home system with multiple (2-4) LED light arrays, sometimes 1 portable.
  • Phone charging via usb, with cables
  • Some offerings include radio
  • Pricing examples: (deposit/monthly/term)

KES 1,500/KES/450/36

KES 3,500/KES1, 500/12

Tier 2

  • Basic offering: Tier 1 (above), plus
  • Capability to operate television, satellite decoder, fan
  • Pricing examples: (deposit/monthly/term)

KES 890/KES 890/36

In total, 250,000 households that consist of 1.1 million people will be reached through SHS.

Stand Alone Systems for Public Facilities

A secondary school in Samburu County that is proposed will be served by a standalone system under KOSAP( Picture:Samburu County Government)

Electrification of community facilities is a strategic priority for the Government of Kenya (GoK). GoK has undertaken a recent large scale program to provide solar electrification to primary schools as part of the Digital Learning Initiative.

Under this, community facilities developed by the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Interior will be supplied with power for optimum performance.

To achieve this, a private sector contractor will be procured by KPLC for each service territory to supply, install and maintain stand-alone solar systems in community facilities.

While past approaches focused on supply and installation with limited O&M consideration, the emphasis under this component will move towards a performance based, long-term service delivery. The project will also leverage on technological advancements to reduce maintenance costs. Installations will be made at 207 Secondary Schools; 784 Level 2 & 3 Health Clinics; and 106 ACC Offices.

 1.Clean Cooking Stoves

 The target in this is to support transition from   low-efficiency baseline stoves to cleaner, high efficiency improved stoves. Funded to the tune of $6million, the clean cooking stoves will first be provided   to five counties – West Pokot, Turkana, Isiolo, Samburu and Marsabit.

 Women in Samburu County using traditional cooking methods that will be replaced with efficient cook stoves under the KOSAP Project.(Picture: Samburu County Goverrnent)

A  Stove–Market Testing Program   will be undertaken in the urban areas and densely settled parts of Turkana County.  Stoves to be included in the project will be determined   following a call for Expression of Interest from stove manufacturers. To be eligible, a woodstove   will have to prove that its efficiency test as a Tier 2 Stove (roughly 30 % efficient) and a charcoal  stove  will have  to prove  that its efficiency tests as  Tier 3 stove (40% efficient).

After the tests are done, both consumers   and suppliers – retailers, wholesalers and distributors   in the urban areas of Turkana will be exposed to the stoves.

Financial support will  be provided   to selected   distributors  via  a package of   via  a  package of  result – based incentives  to enable them   market their stoves   locally  within the target counties , to increase their inventories  of the selected  higher quality stoves , to purchase  and transport them  to target  communities in  numbers and unequally sell them  to the communities.

1.Solar  Water Pumps  for Community Facilities

About 380 boreholes associated with community facilities in the 14 Counties will benefit from the installation of solar powered water pumps. This will increase sustainable access to water supply by equipping new boreholes and retrofitting existing diesel –powered boreholes.

The Rural Electrification Agency (REA) which is in charge of implementing this aspect of the project will hire private sector contactor to supply, install and maintain stand alone solar sytems for the community facilities. This will enhance the sustainability of these facilities as operational cost associated with diesel based systems will be avoided.

The payment for maintenance services will be recovered on monthly basis   or at frequency to be determined by the relevant stakeholder – Counties, REA and community facilities- from community facilities hosting these boreholes.

E) Capacity Building

The project recognises that the need to build capacity for the effective implementation of the project. Towards this, the project has set aside resources to build the required skills set for the   Project Coordination Unit (PCU) in the MoE as well as for the Project Implementation Units KPLC and REA, and (PIUs).

Participants in the Sustainable Energy for Policy Makers Training drew from Marsabit, Isiolo and Narok Counties after graduating at Strathmore University, In November, 2018. (Picture courtesy of Strathmore University)


Some of the areas in which trainings have been undertaken include: Project Development for Power and renewable Energy, International Procurement of Consulting Services; Project Management Monitoring and Control, Management Development Programme for Executive Assistants; Project Management and Implementation among other.

A central plank of trainings under KOSAP is aimed at enhancing the capacity of the targeted county governments. The County government’s role in the energy sector is defined under the Constitution as “county planning and development, including-electricity and gas reticulation and energy regulation.”Given that the County Governments have been in existence for less than six years, there is need to enhance their Capacity in order to undertake this function effectively.

Trainings for the County Government are focused on Energy Management, Renewable Energy and Sustainable Resource Management, Tariff Rates and Cost Recovery Requirements, Environmental   and Social Management, among others.

A Training Needs Assessment (TNA) will be undertaken to determine the capacity gaps in the identified institutions and a long-term capacity building plan   to be implemented over a period of Six years, developed.